Chapter 5

Radar Spectrum Requirements


The NTIA Requirements Study addressed 18 radio services, and developed a 10-year forecast of national spectrum needs. In that study, it noted that spectrum allocated for radiolocation, radionavigation, and meteorological aids was adequate. This study revisits Federal radar spectrum requirements at the request of several Federal agencies. Additionally, radar spectrum requirements of the EESS (active) are also discussed herein.

As discussed earlier, radar developers and the eventual radar users need assurance that spectrum will be available for their use not only to amortize their investments but also to accomplish the agencies' mission. In the NTIA Requirements Study, NTIA cited radar experts who concluded that radars employing new technologies have an approximate 15-20 year development time between concept to deployment.(1) A classic example was the NEXRAD radar (Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler, WSR-88). The program began in FY81, had its first limited production WSR-88 radar installed at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in 1990, and was commissioned in 1994.(2) So when radars systems are in the conceptual, design, and developmental stage, the manufacturer and end user need some assurance that the radar band will be available when the radar is commissioned and for some time in the future for the user to amortized its investment. The FAA, which operates some of the WSR-88's, has planned enhancements to this system that will extend the radar's service life to 2040.(3)

Historically, the development and acquisition of aeronautical radionavigation and maritime radionavigation systems usually considered the requirements of diverse international groups, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and other allies, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Radar requirements such as performance, standardization, and cost not only influence the search for an international consensus on a selection of radionavigation radar systems but also on their operating frequency bands.

The FAA and USCG are Federal users of spectrum as providers and operators of radionavigation services. The FAA use of spectrum is primarily in support of aeronautical safety services used within the National Airspace System. This exclusively allocated spectrum must be free from interference due to the safety of life aspects of FAA services. The USCG also uses spectrum as a provider of critical maritime radionavigation services and whose maritime radionavigation systems must also be interference free.

While DOD access to current radar spectrum bands will continue, the overall trend is toward a greater demand for spectrum especially in bands that support surveillance, fire control and imaging radar. The largest increase in spectrum use by radar systems will occur in the upper frequency bands, above 6 GHz, with an overall 70 percent growth in DOD spectrum use projected over the next decade.(4)

Projected Requirements: Radars Under Systems Review

As mentioned earlier, various Federal agencies currently have a total of 36 radar systems under systems review. For most of these radar systems, the table below depicts the agencies, radar system description, and operating frequency range. A short description of the radars under systems review is provided for selected radar systems.

The Army has 14 systems under systems review, the Navy has 11 systems, and the Air Force has 8 systems. Information on most of these radar systems are not yet releaseable.

The NASA system is an airborne VHF radar for the measurement of terrestrial vegetative biomass. The BioSAR will enable the investigation of 82 percent of the Earth's biomass which is beyond the capabilities of currently available SAR systems, which benefit NASA's mission to Planet Earth. NASA has five EESS active sensor types: SAR's, altimeters, scatterometers, precipitation radars, and cloud profile radars. Examples of planned NASA radar systems usage include for the SAR: the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) to be flown on the Shuttle in 2000; for the altimeter: the ocean topography experiment (TOPEX) follow-on; for the scatterometer: the SEAWINDS; for the precipitation radar: the tropical rain measuring mission (TRMM) follow-on; and for the cloud profile radar (the cloud satellite, CLOUDSAT).


Radars Under SPS Review

Agency System Description Operating Frequency Range (MHz)
DOE Ground Penetrating Radar .009-600
Commerce Alaska MF Radar 2.409-2.451
Navy HF OTH Radar 5-30
Navy HF Frequency Surface Wave Radar 15-25
Army DARPA Foliage Penetration SAR 25-93
Army ARL Ultrawide Band Radar 40-1800
NASA NASA Biomass SAR (BioSAR) 80-120
Navy ERIM Concealed Target Detection Radar 187-913
Navy Wideband Impulse Transmitter Radar 210-1690
Army Geographic SAR (GeoSAR) 9630-9790
Navy AN/TPS-59 (V) 1 Radar 1215-1400
Air Force Next Generation Target Control System 1370-1385
Air Force Linear Array Intrusion Detection System 1678-2678
Air Force AN/GPN-XX Digital ASR (ASR-11) 2700-2900
Navy Naval Space Command Bi-Static Radar 3100-3600
Navy Signature Managed ATC Approach & Landing System 3195-3690
Air Force Hughes XR640-3500A SAR 8400-9000
Army ATNAVICS PAR 9000-9200
Army Multimode Survivable Radar 9200-10500
Army Interferometeric SAR 9456.5-9749.5
Navy AN/SPQ-9B Radar 9467.5-9972.5
Army Crusader Projectile Tracking System 15700-16200
Air Force SAR (Tier III UAV) 15970-16970
Army Tactical Endurance SAR 15970-16970
Army Small Tactical SAR 16472-17128
Air Force Haystack Millimeter Wave Radar 33400-36000
Army Millimeter Wave Ground Radar 34000-35986

The DOE system is a micro-power pulse radar using ultra-wideband technology that is being developed for applications including bridge-deck inspection, ground penetration, mine detection and precision distance resolution. The system is expected to be activated in 1999 with the technology expanded to many other applications over the next several decades.

Increased Military Radar Development

Planning for the increased access to the electromagnetic spectrum required by future radar systems is essential to maintaining information superiority. The military systems using radar provide the United States with the capability to conduct effective campaigns and to maintain security in peace. The guidance and fire control radar systems for precision munitions used in the Gulf War and in Bosnia allow military missions to be conducted against high-value targets in populated areas with minimal risk to civilians. The new Theater High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD) radar system will afford warfighters protection against conventional and nuclear, biological, or chemical theater missiles, while the National Missile Defense (NMD) radar will protect civilian populations. The Discoverer II space-based radar is designed to aid in detecting moving targets and delivering precision guided munitions accurately.(5)

The growth in electromagnetic spectrum use is due primarily to the fielding of follow-on systems with enhanced features that require increased spectrum access for functionality. The use of surveillance, fire control and imaging radars will increase significantly during the projected period. New systems such as the AN/SPY-2, AN/TPS-59 (v)1 and new generations of missile defense radars are due to be fielded during this period, as well as a new constellation of space-based synthetic aperture radars for increased imaging capabilities in support of contingency operations. These new radars generally process a much wider bandwidth signal than current generation systems, to provide enhanced target recognition capabilities. The wider processing band of newer systems relative to current systems is reflected in the projected 70 percent increase in overall spectrum use.(6)

Radar systems above 6 GHz currently planned for deployment include THAAD and NMD ground-based radar systems that take advantage of the characteristics of high frequencies, as do the Discoverer II space-based radar and the F-22 radar system. All radar systems are expected to receive future upgrades which will include features such as multi-function and dual band modes and systems designed for intrusion detection and improved space surveillance.(7)

New developments are centering on the upper bands, but these developments are generally intended to enhance capabilities rather than supplant the existing systems in the lower bands. Additionally, the trend in radar is towards wider bandwidths to better discriminate target objects and to provide additional signal processing for anti-jam techniques. While DOD access to current radar spectrum bands will continue, the overall trend is toward a greater demand for spectrum especially in bands that support surveillance, fire control and imaging radar. The largest increase in spectrum use by radar systems will occur in the upper frequency bands, above 6 GHz, with an overall 70 percent growth in spectrum use projected over the next decade.(8)

Projected Requirements:

Current Radar Systems

The following sections describe the projected usage time frame for various Federal agencies' radar systems. Some requirements were extracted from reports, derived as a function of the radar platform's life cycle, or a forecast based on the agency's continuing mission requirements.

FAA Spectrum Requirements for a Modernized Air Traffic Control System

Historically, the requirements for specific frequency bands for different aeronautical radionavigation applications necessitated that segments of spectrum be reserved for specific applications. In many cases, allocations for aeronautical use was exclusive in order to meet the stringent requirements of aviation safety. As the FAA transitions to a more modernized air traffic control system, it has identified and justified the spectrum necessary to support its mission. Included in its list of spectrum requirements, was spectrum for the operations of FAA radars. The following is a summary of those requirements. NTIA believes the FAA spectrum requirements will remain unchanged in the foreseeable future.

1215-1390 MHz. Air route surveillance radars will be needed and remain essential for the foreseeable future to both satisfy civil aviation's need for long-range surveillance, and to provide weather data to air traffic controllers.(9)

2700-2900 MHz. Airport surveillance radars operating in this band will remain essential to providing safe and reliable air traffic control near airports. Replacements for ASR's deployed in the early 1970's are being jointly developed by the FAA and DOD. Further, plans for a new "multipurpose" terminal radar have been outlined that would combine the terminal surveillance and weather radars of some of today's operating radars about the year 2020. If deployed, this new radar would likely use the same spectrum as the two systems its replaces (2700-2900 and 5600-5650 MHz, and part of 5150-5250 MHz).(10)

2700-3000 MHz. The NEXRAD operates in this frequency band and is the primary system for collecting wide-area weather information for flight planning purposes. The FAA believes that planned enhancements to the NEXRAD should extend its service life to the year 2040.(11)

4200-4400 MHz. According to the FAA and ICAO, radar altimeters will remain an essential element of the modernized air traffic control system. The spectrum used by these systems will be needed indefinitely, and must be available for exclusive use. Also, because of the critical safety aspects of its use, this band must be protected from out-of-band interference due to adjacent-channel or harmonics encroachment.(12)

5150-5250 and 5600-5650 MHz. Terminal Doppler weather radars will continue to provide weather surveillance in the air traffic control terminal areas. These two frequency bands will be needed to support the modernized air traffic control system.(13)

5350-5470 MHz, 9300-9500 MHz, and 13250- 13400 MHz. The FAA believes that airborne weather radars operating in these bands will continue to be important to commercial aviation, especially in those areas with limited or no air traffic control service.(14)

9000-9200 MHz. A low cost ASDE system is being developed in this band to support ground surveillance at smaller airports. Designed to complement the more complex, expensive ASDE-3 system that is installed at larger airports, this system will assist controllers at reducing the number of runway incursions, a top priority in improving the safety of the flying public.(15)

15700-16200 MHz. The FAA is currently using this band for ASDE-3 radars and sees continued use of this band in the foreseeable future. Additionally, to satisfy the need for ASDE systems at smaller airports, this band is being considered along with the 9000-9200 MHz for the development of a low-cost ASDE.(16)

24250-24650 MHz. The ASDE operating in these bands have been decommissioned and the FAA has identified no further requirements for this band.(17)

Navy Radar Spectrum Requirements

As the Navy looks to the 21st century, it is redefining sea power as well as its ability to project and sustain power ashore. The Navy's use of radars aboard its various platforms (ship, aircraft, and shore vehicles) play a significant role in its platform's mission accomplishment. NTIA envisions the Navy radar usage requirements to increase, particularly above 6 GHz, but to be accommodated within the current frequency allocations.

Shipborne Radars. Shipborne radars support the ship's mission support operations during the ship's operational life cycle. Naval ships are normally projected to be in operation for 20-30 years while aircraft carriers are projected for a 40-50 year life cycle.(18) Thus, the various U.S. Navy shipborne radars will continue to operate on their supporting platforms for at least the next 20 years. For example, the AN/SPN-43 radar has been in use for over 30 years. As required, these systems are removed from decommissioned ships and re-installed into new ship construction. Thus, the Navy's active fleet of air-capable ships are always equipped with the AN/SPN-43 radar. These bands are:

420-450 MHz
902-928 MHz
1215-1390 MHz
2900-3100 MHz
3100-3650 MHz
5250-5900 MHz
8500-10550 MHz
13400-14000 MHz
15300-15900 MHz
16000-17000 MHz
31800-33400 MHz
92000-100000 MHz

Airborne Radars. The range and depth of naval aviation supports a broad force structure representing diverse missions such as air-to-air, air-to-ground, fleet early warning, troop transport, and search and rescue functions. The main sizing elements in current Navy planning includes:

An aircraft carrier fleet comprising 11 active and one reserve carrier.(19)

By the turn of the century, 10 active and one reserve air wing will support the carriers. Each air wing will comprise 50 high performance F-18 and F-14 multiple mission capable strike fighter aircraft, EA-6B's, E-2C's, S-3B's and ES-3A's. (20)

Marine aircraft wings will consist of three active and one reserve squadrons.(21)

Maritime patrol aircraft at the turn of the century will consist of 12 active and 8 reserve squadrons flying P-3C aircraft supporting increasing multi-mission anti-surface warfare requirements.(22)

The Navy expects its aviation effectiveness to remain unchanged in the foreseeable future and its present aircraft and replacements to be in operation to at least the year 2020. Therefore, the radar frequency bands supporting airborne radars will be required to at least the year 2020 in the following bands:

420-450 MHz
4200-4400 MHz
5500-5900 MHz
8500-10000 MHz
13250-13400 MHz

Land-Based Radars. The Navy operates many various land-based radars ashore. Many are integral systems supporting the USMC, air traffic control at its naval air stations, and many others for its various tests ranges. NTIA believes Navy ground-based radar spectrum requirements will remain the same in the foreseeable future. These bands are:

3-30 MHz
216-220 MHz
1215-1390 MHz
2700-2900 MHz
2900-3000 MHz
5400-5900 MHz
9000-10550 MHz
15300-17300 MHz
24050-24250 MHz

Air Force Radar Spectrum Requirements

Airborne and Land-based Radars. The Air Force employs thousands of aircraft and aviation systems in mission areas such as aerospace control, theater battle management, combat delivery, strategic air defense, surveillance and reconnaissance, airlift and rescue, and special operations. Both airborne and land-based radars are integral parts supporting the various Air Force mission areas. By the year 2020, the Air Force aircraft force structure for fighter, bomber, and attack aircraft will number approximately 2,800; airlift and rescue aircraft approximately 675; special operations aircraft approximately 175; airlift and refueling aircraft approximately 775; and other aircraft approximately 160.(23) NTIA believes the airborne and land-based radars operating in the following bands will be required to at least the year 2020 to support the various Air Force mission areas:

420-450 MHz
902-928 MHz
1215-1390 MHz
2700-2900 MHz
2900-3100 MHz
3100-3650 MHz
4200-4400 MHz
5400-5925 MHz
8500-10550 MHz
13250-13400 MHz
15700-17300 MHz
31800-33400 MHz
33400-36000 MHz

Army Radar Spectrum Requirements

Airborne Radars. Army aviation provides versatile, rapidly deployable, responsive forces that overcome the limitations of ground systems by easily negotiating terrain obstacles; expanding the battle space; massing the effects of fire without missing forces; and delivering precise, lethal fires. Airborne radar systems are an integral part of the resources employed by Army aviation to ensure successful airborne missions. As a result of its downsizing, the Army has reduced rotary-wing aircraft to approximately 4,805. This is also the projected number of rotary-wing aircraft it plans to have in the year 2020.(24) NTIA envisions no change to the Army airborne radar spectrum requirements in the foreseeable future. The following radar bands will be needed to support the Army airborne radar systems to at least the year 2020:

4200-4400 MHz
5250-5925 MHz
9200-10000 MHz

Land-Based Radars. Army forces are primarily ground forces that, when deployed, rely heavily on radars for air and battlefield defense. While in-garrison, radars are used for land-based air defense, training in the proper use of battlefield, missile control and ground surveillance radars. Additionally, the Army uses many radars on its various test and operational ranges for range safety, surveillance, and instrumentation (telemetry). NTIA believes Army ground based radar spectrum requirements will remain the same in the foreseeable future. These bands are:

420-450 MHz
902-928 MHz
1215-1390 MHz
2700-2900 MHz
2900-3400 MHz
5250-5925 MHz
8500-10550 MHz
15300-17300 MHz
24050-24250 MHz
33400-36000 MHz

U.S. Coast Guard Radar Spectrum Requirements

Airborne Radars. The USCG presently operates throughout the United States and its Possessions approximately 202 aircraft from its 26 Air Stations.(25) These aircraft are primarily of four different types: the HH-65 Dauphin helicopter for short-range recovery missions; the HH-60 Jayhawk helicopters for medium-range recovery missions; the HU-25 Guardian fixed-wing aircraft for medium-range surveillance; and the HC-130V Hercules fixed-wing for its long-range surveillance missions.(26) Each aircraft is equipped with radar systems that are integral assets that help the USCG accomplish its various roles. Aircraft in the USCG inventory have a planned service life of 20 years. Presently, all but the HH-60 helicopter are undergoing mission analysis for replacement, fleet rehabilitation, or future acquisition decisions. The planned service life for the USCG aircraft is around the year 2010. All the radar bands that the USCG uses aboard its aircraft will be needed to at least the year 2010.

420-450 MHz
4200-4400 MHz
8500-9600 MHz
13250-13400 MHz

Shipborne Radars. With U.S. maritime trade possibly tripling by 2020, the number of oceangoing vessels transiting U.S. waters will increase.(27) Coupled with USCG's increased role in maritime law enforcement against illicit maritime activities, the USCG will place heavy reliance on its ships and its various surveillance systems. Shipborne radars will be one of the tools expected to be employed in support of the USCG mission. USCG ships, like Navy ships, are normally projected to an operational life cycle for 20-30 years. Therefore, the various USCG shipborne radars will continue to operate on their supporting platforms for at least the next 20 years. NTIA believes USCG shipborne radar spectrum requirements will remain the same in the foreseeable future. These bands are:

420-450 MHz
2900-3100 MHz
9200-10000 MHz

Land-Based Radars. Land-based radars are employed by the USCG as aids to navigation, search and rescue services, port safety and security, as well as for automobile vehicle speed detection. NTIA envisions no reduction in this USCG mission requirement and foresees continued USCG radar usage in the following bands.

2900-3100 MHz
300-10000 MHz
10450-10550 MHz

NASA Radar Spectrum Requirements

Radar is a very important tool that NASA employs as it conducts flight research within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and the testing and operation of aeronautical and space vehicles. Additionally, NASA makes good use of radars in the exploration of space with manned and unmanned vehicles and in its Earth exploration programs. NTIA foresees long continued use of radars by NASA for land-based, airborne, shipborne, and spaceborne missions and operations well beyond 2020.

420-450 MHz
902-928 MHz
1215-1300 MHz
2310-2345 MHz
2700-2900 MHz
2900-3500 MHz
4200-4400 MHz
5250-5925 MHz
8500-9800 MHz
9975-10025 MHz
10450-10550 MHz
13250-13750 MHz
15460-15616 MHz
17200-17300 MHz
24050-24250 MHz
33400 MHz
35500-36000 MHz
78000-79000 MHz
85000 MHz
92000-95000 MHz
130000-195000 MHz
>300000 MHz

Department of Commerce Radar Spectrum Requirements

With the nation's increased reliance on accurate weather forecasts, weather-related information, and desire for better management of our natural resources, the dependence on radars to assist in these efforts is also increased. NTIA sees a radar spectrum requirement by NOAA (primarily NWS and NFS) for the foreseeable future in the following bands:

404 MHz
449 MHz
2700-3100 MHz
4200-4400 MHz
5370-5480 MHz
5600-5650 MHz
8500-9000 MHz
9200-10000 MHz
10450-10550 MHz

Department of the Interior Radar Spectrum Requirements

As the Department of the Interior moves into the 21st century, its mission to continue land and resource management will more than likely continue. Its reliance on radars to support its geological survey and park management activities will also be required and NTIA sees their radar spectrum requirement continuing for the foreseeable future in the following bands:

5470-5600 MHz
9350-9450 MHz
10450-10550 MHz
24050-24250 MHz

Department of Agriculture Radar Spectrum Requirements

The Department of Agriculture envisions the continued need for its radars in the research and management of natural resources and the environment. NTIA sees their radar spectrum requirement continuing for the foreseeable future in the 9300-9500 MHz and 10450-10550 MHz frequency bands.

Department of Justice Radar Spectrum Requirements

The Department of Justice expects to continue employing a variety of radio communications equipment including radar devices in its law enforcement, crime prevention, and crime detection efforts. NTIA sees their radar spectrum requirements continuing for the foreseeable future in the 300-3000 MHz and 4200-4400 MHz bands.

National Science Foundation Radar Spectrum Requirements

In its promotion of scientific and engineering research programs, the NSF employs radars for a variety of purposes ranging from atmospheric research, radar astronomy, and range safety. NTIA envisions the NSF's need for radars to supports its research programs well into the future. The following frequencies and frequency bands are anticipated to be required by the NSF in the foreseeable future:

908-928 MHz
2380 MHz
2700-2900 MHz
9200-9500 MHz

Department of Treasury Radar Spectrum Requirements

In its law enforcement function, the Department of Treasury will continue to employ land-based, airborne, and shipborne radars well into the future. NTIA expects their radar spectrum requirements to continue for the foreseeable future in the following bands:

420-450 MHz

1215-1390 MHz
2900-3100 MHz
9200-9500 MHz

Department of Energy Radar Spectrum Requirements

Radars are an important tool that DOE employs in its research that supports our nation's energy security, national security, and environmental quality. The Department envisions its use of radars well into the future. NTIA sees their radar spectrum requirements continuing for the foreseeable future in the following bands:

30-100 MHz
404 MHz
420-450 MHz
915 MHz
1215-1390 MHz
2900-3650 MHz
5250-5925 MHz
8500-9000 MHz
9200-9600 MHz
10450-10550 MHz
15700-16600 MHz
24050-24250 MHz
33400-36000 MHz

The Department of Energy laboratories are performing research in new radar techniques with possible uses ranging from ground penetrating technologies with 3-D displays to support law enforcement, materials composition, construction safety, medical research and national security.

Veterans Administration, US Postal Service, Health and Human Services, and the General Services Administration:

These departments employ radars for vehicle speed detection on their various facilities. NTIA expects 10450-10550 MHz and 24050-24250 MHz will continue to be used well into the future for vehicle speed detection.

Expected Radar Systems for Systems Certification

Considerable effort has been applied to spaceborne radar research for the Northern American continental defense and for Earth observations over the last 30 years. The DOD and NASA have led the U.S. efforts in SBR research.

With two new SBR systems being investigated, the DOD seems to have expressed new interest in launching SBR systems. One SBR system is the Discoverer II program that will develop and demonstrate an affordable SBR with high-range resolution ground moving target indication, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities, and digital terrain mapping elevation data collection. The other is the Tactical Satellite Radar (TACSRAD) envisioned as a spaceborne, multi-mission active and passive system. The envisioned TACSRAD constellation will be medium Earth orbit, consisting of 10 satellites in an equatorial orbit, and providing essentially continuous coverage from the Equator to approximately 60 degrees north and south latitudes. Each of these SBR systems are expected to operate in at least one of the radar bands between 1-20 GHz.

Pending WRC-97 implementation of new frequency allocations for EESS, NASA has plans to use these bands for SAR imaging, altimeter, scatterometers, cloud profiling, and precipitation radars. These spaceborne radars are planned in the 8550-8650, 9500-9800, 17200-17300 MHz, 35500-36000 MHz, and 94000-94100 MHz bands.

NTIA expects these spaceborne radar systems will be submitted for systems certification. Should development lead to procurement, NTIA expects the DOD and NASA to seek worldwide notification as well as protection. It is expected the DOD spaceborne radar systems will seek authorization to operate in at least one of the radar bands between 1-20 GHz. and the planned NASA spaceborne radars in the spectrum indicated. Spectrum for these spaceborne radar systems will probably be required beyond 2025.

Increased Military Radar Usage

For military radar systems, the increased demand for information of all types has resulted in the increased use of radar in the battlespace and procurement of radar systems with improved target detection range and target definition. Consequently, the density of radar emitters in military operating areas is projected to increase which directly translates into increased use and demand for electromagnetic spectrum. Given this increase in density, high-power radar system spectrum requirements must also reflect consideration of the guard bands necessary to protect the radar functionality and avoid interference to adjacent spectrum users in the battlespace. These guard bands vary as a function of design-specific characteristics including but not limited to peak radiated power, the level of noise outside the radar fundamental emission , and their relationship to one another. Further, widely varying radar system mission requirements dictate operations in a wide range of frequency bands, with large and varying bandwidths, from 300 MHz through 12 GHz and beyond.(28)

Total Federal Radar Spectrum Requirements

For the purposes of spectrum planning, the following table lists frequency bands that have been identified as necessary to support radar spectrum requirements for various Federal agencies. The information in the table below should be considered as long-range planning information for Federal radar systems. Because Federal agency missions are unlikely to change, and radar platforms are likely to be updated or replaced, the actual time frame for the radar spectrum requirement is likely to be extended beyond the 20-year time frames shown below.

20-Year Federal Spectrum Requirement Forecast for Radar Bands

Frequency Bands Federal Government Use
92-100 GHz Airborne fire-control, beacons, atmospheric research, cloud detection, and synthetic vision radars
31.8-36 GHz Airborne navigational, mapping, weather, beacon, terrain following & avoidance; aircraft carrier PAR, test range, atmospheric & oceanic research, altimeter, scatterometer, and synthetic vision radars
24.05-24.65 GHz Doppler radiolocation, vehicle speed detection, scatterometer, and precipitation radars
15.4-17.3 GHz Airborne and shipborne multimode search, battlefield, aircraft carrier PAR, fire-control, test range, ASDE, scatterometer, precipitation, atmospheric research, and spaceborne radars
13.25-14.2 GHz Airborne and shipborne search and acquisition Doppler, airborne weather, altimeters, scatterometer, precipitation, environmental research, and spaceborne radars
8.5-10.55 GHz Airborne and shipborne surveillance and navigation, fire-control, battlefield, maritime, weather, test range, airborne radionavigation, ATC, SAR's, altimeters, ASDE, scatterometer, vehicle speed detection, and spaceborne radars
5250-5925 MHz NOAA weather radars, FAA TDWR, surveillance and air defense (airborne, shipborne, land-based), fire-control, maritime, test range, SAR's, altimeters, scatterometer, airborne, and spaceborne radars
4200-4400 MHz Aircraft radar altimeters
3100-3650 MHz DOD surveillance and air defense (airborne, shipborne, land-based), ATC, SAR's, altimeters, test range, and spaceborne radars
2700-3100 MHz ATC, maritime, and weather radars; DOD shipborne, airborne, ground air surveillance radars; range control, and spaceborne radars
2310-2385 MHz Planetary and lunar radar
1215-1390 MHz ATC, SAR's, and DOD early warning air defense, battlefield, shipborne long-range surveillance, and spaceborne radars
890-942 MHz Navy shipborne long-range surveillance, test range, NASA research, and wind profiler radars
420-450 MHz DOD early warning and long-range surveillance radars; and wind profiler radars
216-220 MHz DOD space surveillance radar
3-30 MHz DOD OTH and surface wave radars

Endnotes: Chapter 5

1. National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIA Special Publication 94-31, U.S. National Spectrum Requirements: Projections and Trends (1995), at 141.

2. U.S. Department of Commerce/NOAA, Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Fiscal Year 1999, FCM P1-1998, June 1998, at vii-ix.

3. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Radio Spectrum Requirements for a Modernized Air Traffic Control System, July 1997, at 30 [hereinafter FAA Spectrum Requirements].

4. Department of Navy email comments from Mr Bruce Swearingen, Director, Naval Electromagnetic Spectrum Center, at 2. (See email from, March 24, 2000 on file at NTIA).

5. Id. at 3.

6. Id.

7. Id.

8. Id. at 2.

9. See FAA Spectrum Requirements, supra note 3, at 29 and 31.

10. Id.

11. Id. at 37.

12. Id. at 22-23.

13. Id. at 31.

14. Id. at 30.

15. Email comments from Mr Tim Pawlowitz (See email from, Dec 10, 1999, on file at NTIA).

16. See FAA Spectrum Requirements, supra note 3, at 30.

17. Id.

18. Interview with Mr Anthony Nickens, Division Director, Corporate Research & Development, Naval Sea Systems Command, U.S. Department of the Navy, April 21, 1999.

19. See Department of Defense, Joint Aeronautical Commander Group Aviation Science & Technology Plan, Volume 1: Aviation Vision, March 1999, at 29-20 [hereinafter DOD Aviation Vision].

20. Id.

21. Id. Each air wing will consist of high performance F-18 and AV-8B aircraft for close air support and EA-6B aircraft for electronic warfare.

22. Id.

23. Id.

24. Id.

25. The USCG Auxiliary (a civilian volunteer group) operates approximately 206 aircraft to assist with USCG missions.

26. See DOD Aviation Vision, supra note 19, at 29-20.

27. U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Coast Guard 2020, at 9.

28. See Swearingen, supra note 4, at 2.

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