Go to: Cover / Exec Summary / Foreword / Chapt 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / Appendices

APPENDIX A

World Radio Astronomy Observatories

The United States and other countries operate radio astronomy observatories located throughout the world and below is a list of some of the more prominent sites. There are hundreds more radio astronomy sites used by universities and colleges for radio astronomy studies as well as the hundreds of amateur radio astronomers.



Major Radio Astronomy Facilities Location Country
Asia Pacific Telescope Marsfield, New South Wales Australia
Mopra Observatory Coonabarabran Australia
Parkes Observatory Parkes Australia
Australia Telescope Compact Array Narrabri Australia
Australian Long Baseline Array Parkes-Tidbinbilla Australia
Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory Hobart, Tasmania Australia
NASA Deep Space Network Canberra Australia
Very Long Baseline Interferometry Fortaleza Brazil
Nation River Observatory Ottawa Canada
Southern Columbia Millimeter Telescope La Serena Chile
European VLBI Network (JIVE/EVN) Station Shanghai China
European VLBI Network (JIVE/EVN) Station Urumgi China
Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique Plateau de Bure France
Effelsberg Radio Telescope Effelsberg (Bonn) Germany
Max-Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy Effelsberg (Bonn) Germany
European VLBI Network (JIVE/EVN) Station Bologna Italy
European VLBI Network (JIVE/EVN) Station Noto Italy
European VLBI Network (JIVE/EVN) Station Medicina Italy
Taed United Kingdom Radio Astronomy Observatory Taed United Kingdom Korea
Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center Ventspils Latvia
Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory Torun Poland
Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory Johannesburg South Africa
Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique Granada Spain
NASA Deep Space Network Madrid Spain
Onsala Space Observatory (The Swedish National Onsala Sweden
Kolner Observatory for Submillimeter Astronomy Gornergrat Switzerland
Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope Westerbork The Netherlands
Cambridge Low-Frequency Synthesis Telescope Cambridge United Kingdom
Cambridge Ryle Telescope Cambridge United Kingdom
Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope Cambridge United Kingdom
European VLBI Network (JIVE/EVN) Station Jodrell Bank United Kingdom
Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory Cambridge United Kingdom
Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network Jodrell Bank United Kingdom
Taunton Radio Astronomy Observatory Somerset United Kingdom
Arecibo Observatory Arecibo, Puerto Rico United States
Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association-BIMA Hat Creek, CA United States
Caltech Millimeter Array Owens Valley, CA United States
Caltech Submillimeter Observatory Mauna Kea, HI United States
Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory New Salem, MA United States
Haystack Observatory Westford, MA United States
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Mauna Kea, HI United States
Joint Astronomy Centre Hilo, HI United States
NASA Deep Space Network Goldstone, CA United States
NRAO 12-Meter Telescope Tucson, AZ United States
NRAO Green Bank Telescope Green Bank, WV United States
NRAO Very Long Array (VLA) Socorro, NM United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Brewster, WA United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Ft Davis, TX United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Hancock, NH United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Kitt Peak, AZ United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Los Alamos, NM United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Mauna Kea, HI United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station North Liberty, IA United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Owens Valley, CA United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station Pie Town, NM United States
NRAO Very Long Baseline Array Station St Croix, VI United States
Ohio State University Radio Observatory Delaware, OH United States
Owens Valley Radio Observatory Owens Valley, CA United States
Peach Mountain Radio Observatory Stinchfield Woods, MI United States
Submillimeter Telescope Observatory Emerald Peak, AZ United States



APPENDIX B



Applications of Astronomical Techniques



Since its beginning, radio astronomy has contributed much to the science of astronomy and has had numerous innovations that have benefitted radiocommunications and mankind in general. The tables below list some of the advances and contributions to medical, industrial, defense, and environmental applications.(1)



TABLE B-1.

Medical Applications of Astronomical Techniques
Astronomical Technique or Device Medical Uses
3-D image reconstruction from one- and

two-dimensional images

Imaging for CAT scans

Magnetic resonance imaging

Positron emission tomography

Microwave receivers Scans for breast cancer
Image-processing software (IRAF and AIPS) developed by NRAO, NOAA, and NASA Cardiac angiography

Monitoring neutron activity in brain

Positive pressure clean rooms for assembly of space instruments Cleaner hospital operating rooms
Detection of faint x-ray sources Portable x-ray scanners (Lixiscope) for neonatology and third world clinics







TABLE B-2.

Industrial Applications of Astronomical Techniques
Astronomical Technique or Device Industrial Uses
Image-processing software (AIPS, IRAF) General Motors Co. study of automobile crashes; Boeing Co. tests of aircraft hardware
Holographic methods for testing figures of radio telescopes Testing communications antennas
Development of low-noise receivers Components for communications industry
FORTH computer language developed by NRAO for

control of radio telescopes

20 vendors supply FORTH for applications including analysis of auto engines in 20,000 garages, quality control for films at Kodak, 50,000 hand-held computers used by express mail firm.
Gold sensitization of photographic plates Development of Tri-X and 400-ASA films by Kodak
Infrared-sensitive films for spectroscopy Aerial reconnaissance and Earth resources mapping
X-ray detectors for NASA telescopes

Gas Chromatographs to search for life on Mars

Baggage scanners at airports



TABLE B-3.

Defense Applications of Astronomical Techniques
Astronomical Technique or Device Defense Uses
Stellar observations and model atmospheres

Infrared all-sky survey by NASA'S IRAS satellite.

Discrimination of celestial objects from rocket plumes, satellites, and warheads
Detectors for gamma-ray and x-ray astronomy Vela satellite monitors for nuclear explosions
Positions of quasar and stars Precision navigation for civil and military purposes









TABLE B-4.

Environmental Applications of Astronomical Techniques
Astronomical Technique or Device Environmental Uses
Millimeter wave spectroscopy Study of ozone depletion
Models of planetary atmospheres Global change modeling
Study of sunspots and solar flares in sun and stars Short- and long-term predictions of terrestrial effects
Models of astrophysical shocks Study of terrestrial storms
Precision measurement of quasars Geodesy and study of tectonic drift
Composite materials for orbiting infrared telescope Design of solar collectors
Theory of cosmic rays, solar flares, and stellar fusion Design of fusion reactors




APPENDIX C



Preferred Frequency Bands

for Radio Astronomical Measurements



The source of the following three tables was Recommendation 314-8, ITU-R Recommendations, 1994 RA Series, Radioastronomy. Further, these revised lists of frequencies of the astrophysically most important spectral lines were approved by the General Assembly of the IAU, 1991.





TABLE C-1.

Radio Frequency Lines of the Greatest Importance to Radio Astronomy at Frequencies Below 275 GHz

Substance Rest

Frequency

Suggested Minimum

Band

Notes (1)
Deuterium (DI) 327.384 MHz 327.0 - 327.7 MHz 2,3
Hydrogen (HI) 1420.406 MHz 1370.0 - 1427.0 MHz
Hydroxyl radical (OH) 1612.231 MHz 1606.8 - 1613.8 MHz 4
Hydroxyl radical (OH) 1665.402 MHz 1659.8 - 1667.1 MHz 4
Hydroxyl radical (OH) 1667.359 MHz 1661.8 - 1669.0 MHz 4
Hydroxyl radical (OH) 1720.530 MHz 1714.8 - 1722.2 MHz 3, 4
Methyladyne (CH) 3263.794 MHz 3252.9 - 3267.1 MHz 3, 4
Methyladyne (CH) 3335.481 MHz 3324.4 - 3338.8 MHz 3, 4
Methyladyne (CH) 3349.193 MHz 3338.0 - 3352.5 MHz 3, 4
Formaldehyde (H2CO) 4829.660 MHz 4813.6 - 4834.5 MHz 3, 4
Methanol (CH3OH) 6668.518 MHz 6661.8 - 6675.2 MHz 3, 6
Helium (3He+) 8665.650 MHz 8657.0 - 8674.3 MHz 3, 6
Methanol (CH3OH) 12.178 GHz 12.17 - 12.19 GHz 3, 6
Formaldehyde (H2CO) 14.488 GHz 14.44 - 14.50 GHz 3, 4
Cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) 18.343 GHz 18.28 - 18.36 GHz 3, 4, 6
Water vapor (H2O) 22.235 GHz 22.16 - 22.26 GHz 3, 4
Ammonia (NH3) 23.694 GHz 23.61 - 23.71 GHz 4
Ammonia (NH3) 23.723 GHz 23.64 - 23.74 GHz 4
Ammonia (NH3) 23.870 GHz 23.79 - 23.89 GHz 4
Silicon monoxide (SiO) 42.821 GHz 42.77 - 42.86 GHz
Silicon monoxide (SiO) 43.122 GHz 43.07 - 43.17 GHz
Carbon monosulphide (CS) 48.991 GHz 48.94 - 49.04 GHz
Deuterated formylium (DCO+) 72.039 GHz 71.96 - 72.11 GHz 3
Silicon monoxide (SiO) 86.243 GHz 86.16 - 86.33 GHz
Formylium (H13CO+) 86.754 GHz 86.66 - 86.84 GHz
Silicon monoxide (SiO) 86.847 GHz 86.67 - 86.93 GHz
Ethynyl radical (C2H) 87.3 GHz 87.21 - 87.39 GHz 5
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) 88.632 GHz 88.34 - 88.72 GHz 4
Formylium (HCO+) 89.189 GHz 88.89 - 89.28 GHz 4
Hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) 90.664 GHz 90.57 - 90.76 GHz
Diazenylium (N2H+) 93.174 GHz 93.07 - 93.27 GHz
Carbon monosulphide (CS) 97.981 GHz 97.65 - 98.08 GHz 4
Carbon monoxide (C18O) 109.782 GHz 109.67 - 109.89 GHz
Carbon monoxide (13CO) 110.201 GHz 109.83 - 110.31 GHz 4
Carbon monoxide (C17O) 112.359 GHz 112.25 - 112.47 GHz 6
Carbon monoxide (CO) 115.271 GHz 114.88 - 115.39 GHz 4
Formaldehyde (H213CO) 137.450 GHz 137.31 - 137.59 GHz 3, 6
Formaldehyde (H2CO) 140.840 GHz 140.69 - 140.98 GHz
Carbon monosulphide (CS) 146.969 GHz 146.82 - 147.12 GHz
Water vapor (H2O) 183.310 GHz 183.12 - 182.50 GHz
Carbon monoxide (C18O) 219.560 GHz 219.34 - 219.78 GHz
Carbon monoxide (13CO) 220.399 GHz 219.67 - 220.62 GHz 4
Carbon monoxide (CO) 230.538 GHz 229.77 - 230.77 GHz 4
Carbon monosulphide (CS) 244.953 GHz 244.72 - 245.20 GHz 6
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) 265.886 GHz 265.62 - 266.15 GHz
Formylium (HCO+) 267.557 GHz 267.29 - 267.83 GHz
Hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) 271.981 GHz 271.71 - 272.25 GHz
Notes:

1. If Notes 4 or Note 2 are not listed, the band limits are the Doppler-shifted frequencies corresponding to radial velocities of 300 km/s (consistent with line radiation occurring in our Galaxy).

2. An extension to lower frequency of the allocation of 1400-1427 MHz is required to allow for the higher Doppler shifts for HI observed in distant galaxies.

3. The current international allocation is not primary and/or does not meet bandwidth requirements. See the Radio Regulation for more detailed information.

4. Because these line frequencies are also being used for observing other galaxies, the listed bandwidths include Doppler shifts corresponding to radical velocities of up to 1,000 km/s. It should be noted that HF had been observed at frequencies redshifted to 500 MHz, while some lines of the most abundant molecules have been detected in galaxies with velocities up to 50,000 km/s, corresponding to a frequency reduction of up to 17%.

5. There are six closely spaced lines associated with this molecule at this frequency. The listed band is wide enough to permit observations of all six lines.

6. This line frequency is not mentioned in Article 8 of the Radio Regulations.









TABLE C-2.

Radio Frequency Lines of the Greatest Importance to Radio Astronomy at Frequencies Between 275 and 811 GHz

(not allocated in the Radio Regulations)

Substance Rest Frequency (GHz) Suggested Minimum Band (GHz)
Diazenylium (N2H+) 279.511 279.23 - 279.79
Carbon monoxide (C18O) 329.330 329.00 - 329.66
Carbon monoxide (13CO) 330.587 330.25 - 330.92
Carbon monosulphide (CS) 342.883 342.54 - 343.23
Carbon monoxide (CO) 345.796 345.45 - 346.14
Hydrogen cyanide (HNC) 354.484 354.13 - 354.84
Formylium (HCO+) 356.734 356.37 - 357.09
Diazenylium (N2H+) 372.672 372.30 - 373.05
Water vapor (H2O) 380.197 379.81 - 380.58
Carbon monoxide (C18O) 439.088 438.64 - 439.53
Carbon monoxide (13CO) 440.765 440.32 - 441.21
Carbon monoxide (CO) 461.041 460.57 - 461.51
Heavy water (HDO) 464.925 464.46 - 465.39
Carbon (CI) 492.162 491.66 - 492.66
Water vapor (H218O) 547.676 547.13 - 548.22
Water vapor (H2O) 556.936 556.37 - 557.50
Ammonia (15NH3) 572.113 571.54 - 572.69
Ammonia (NH3) 572.498 571.92 - 573.07
Carbon monoxide (CO) 691.473 690.78 - 692.17
Hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) 797.433 796.64 - 798.23
Formylium (HCO+) 802.653 801.85 - 803.85
Carbon monoxide (CO) 806.652 805.85 - 807.46
Carbon (CI) 809.350 808.54 - 810.16











TABLE C-3.

Frequency Bands Allocated to the Radio Astronomy Service That Are Preferred for Continuum Observations

(Secondary allocations are contained within brackets)

Frequency Band

(MHz)

Bandwidth

(%)

Frequency Band

(GHz)

Bandwidth

(%)

13.360-13.410 0.37 10.6-10.7 0.94
25.550-25.670 0.49 15.35-15.4 0.33
[37.5-38.25] [1.98] 22.21-22.50 1.30
73-74.6 [1] 2.17 23.6-24.0 1.68
150.05-153 [2] 1.95 31.3-31.8 1.58
322-328.6 2.03 42.5-43.5 2.33
406.1-410 0.96 86-92 6.74
608-614 [3] 0.98 105-116 9.95
1400-1427 1.91 164-168 2.41
1660-1670 0.60 217-231 6.25
2690-2700 [2655-2690 ] 0.37 [1.31] 265-275 3.70
4990-5000 [4800-4990 ] 0.20 [3.88]
Notes:

(1) Allocation (primary) in Region 2, protection recommended in Regions 1 and 3.

(2) Allocation (primary) in Region 1, Australia, and India.

(3) Allocation (primary) in Region 2, China, and India.






APPENDIX D



List of Acronyms and Abbreviations



AM Amplitude Modulation

am Attometer (10-18 meter)

CAT Computer-aided Tomographic

cm Centimeter (10-2 meter)

CRAF Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies

DOD Department of Defense

EHF Extra High Frequency

EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radiobeacon

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

FCC Federal Communications Commission

FM Frequency Modulation

fm Femtometer (10-15 meter)

FN Footnote

GHz Gigahertz (109 Hertz)

GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System (Russian Federation System)

GPO Government Printing Office

GPS Global Positioning System

HF High Frequency

IAU International Astronomical Union

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

IRAC Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee

ITU International Telecommunication Union

kHz Kilohertz (103 Hertz)

km Kilometer

m Meter

MHz Megahertz (106 Hertz)

m Micrometer (10-6 meter)

mm Millimeter (10-3 meter)

MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

nm Nanometer (10-9 meter)

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NRAO National Radio Astronomy Observatory

NSF National Science Foundation

NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration

OH Hydroxyl

(OR) Off-route

PCS Personal Communications Service

pm Picometer (10-12 meter)

(R) Route

SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite-aided Tracking

SHF Super High Frequency

SPAC Spectrum Planning and Policy Advisory Committee

THz Terahertz (1012Hertz)

UHF Ultra High Frequency

VHF Very High Frequency

VLA Very Long Array

VLBI Very Long Baseline Interferometry

WARC World Administrative Radio Conference

WRC World Radiocommunication Conference (formerly WARC)


Endnote

1. See National Research Council, supra note 13, at 130-133.


Go to: Cover / Exec Summary / Foreword / Chapt 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / Appendices


Go to Engineering Reports.
Go to NTIA/OSM home page.
Go to NTIA home page.